3rd Annual Report

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Third Annual Report

Center for Heritage Resource Studies
University of Maryland, College Park

Paul Shackel, Director
Lena Mortensen, Assistant Director
January 2004

Contents

Executive Summary

Letter from the Director

                                                                                                                

 Center Organization

            Mission

            Center Staff and Faculty

            Center Partners

            Center Affiliates

           

Center Program Areas

            Research

            Education

            Outreach and Debate Forum

            

Center Highlights

            Heritage and the Chesapeake Bay

            Archaeology in Annapolis

            New Philadelphia Field School

            Archaeology and Interpretation

            Maryland’s Labor Heritage

            Monocacy National Battlefield

            Heritage and Tourism at WAC

  

Appendices

             A: Current Center Projects

               

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Executive Summary

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Founded in December 2000, the Center for Heritage Resource Studies at the University of Maryland, College Park was formed to bring scholars and practitioners together to support a comprehensive approach to the study of heritage.  The Center's mission is to provide leadership and encourage research in applied activities that stress the relationship between cultural heritage and the environment. This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of the Center during its third year, from January to December 2003.

 The first section presents the staff and faculty of the Center, together with our partners and affiliates whose work enhances all the Center’s programs.  The second section details the four major program categories of the Center: research, education, outreach and debate forum.  Summaries of the Center projects and activities are presented under each program area.  The third section presents Center highlights in 2003, and gives full descriptions of a number of new and ongoing projects undertaken by Center faculty and Center sponsored programs. 

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            Center for Heritage Resource Studies

 

 Letter from the Director
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January 2004

Greetings,

We have had some exciting developments as well as changes in the Center for Heritage Resource Studies over the past year.  In 2003 we were all sorry to see Don Jones leave the Center for a position with USICOMOS.  Because of Don’s hard work the Center became increasingly recognized in the heritage discipline over the past 2 years.  I am sure he will be a tremendous asset to USICOMOS.  Lena Mortensen who will be receiving her PH.D in 2004 from Indiana University is our new Assistant Director for the Center.  Her research interests are on the social context of the archaeological site of Copán, Honduras, as well as the development of regional heritage tourism.  Lena has picked up where Don left off by helping develop a course for an archaeology and interpretation competency curriculum for the NPS.  She is ready to do ethnographic research on the Eastern Shore, and help develop new partnerships with regional, national, and international organizations.  Please feel free to contact her at any time with any ideas that you may have for the Center (lmortensen@anth.umd.edu 301-405-0085)

In the past year the Center has supported projects in the local Hispanic community, as well as helped with the development of the New Philadelphia archeology project in Illinois.  We also have a strong foothold on Maryland’s Eastern Shore. Chambers continues his studies of tourism and heritage representation.  Paolisso is developing his research that examines how various stakeholders view heritage on the Eastern Shore.  Leone continues his archaeological research efforts on Wye Island and he will continue his efforts with the annual field school in Flanders, Belgium. I am working with the NPS as co-PI on several projects at Monocacy National Battlefield and I was just awarded a three year grant from the National Science Foundation to expand my research at New Philadelphia, Illinois and to train students who are underrepresented in the sciences.  A new connection to the Labor Heritage Foundation is also an exciting development. 

We recently partnered with the Office of Continuing Education, SRI Foundation, the Louis Berger Group, Inc., and we are now a vendor for the Federal Highways Administrations for a 5-year multi-million dollar contract for a wide variety of cultural and environmental training programs.  This new development will help bolster our profile as a leader in heritage education in a different federal agency.

The work performed over the past year has created a new enthusiasm for the Center and I appreciate all of the support from our affiliates.  We look forward to our continued cooperation with you and our partnering organizations as we develop new and exciting partnerships over the next year.  We are all pleased about what we have accomplished in a short time and we are even more excited about the future. 

            I thank you all for your past support and we look forward to working with you in the coming years.  Best wishes for a wonderful and prosperous new year.

 

Paul Shackel

Professor

Director, Center for Heritage Resource Studies


 

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Center Organization

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Founded in December 2000, the Center for Heritage Resource Studies at the University of Maryland, College Park was formed to bring scholars and practitioners together to support a comprehensive approach to the study of heritage.  The Center provides a forum for exchanging ideas, provides educational and professional training opportunities, conducts research projects associated with all aspects of heritage resource studies, and is developing various public outreach efforts.  This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of the Center during 2003.

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 Mission

The establishment of the Center for Heritage Resource Studies recognizes that the sustainability of our cultural and environmental resources is dependent upon understanding the ways in which heritage is defined, expressed, and used to further economic development and political activity.  Furthermore, it is critical that research and educational efforts conducted and sponsored by the Center be formulated in a way that can be readily applied by those who are responsible for the management of our historic, cultural, and environmental resources.  In this manner, the activities of the Center for Heritage Resource Studies will contribute substantially to an increased awareness of the need for responsible heritage development.

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Center Staff and Faculty

 

Director         

Paul A. Shackel, Professor of Anthropology

Assistant  Director Lena Mortensen, Faculty Research Assistant
Faculty  Members    Erve J. Chambers, Professor of Anthropology
  Mark P. Leone, Professor of Anthropology
            Michael Paolisso, Associate Professor of Anthropology

 
 

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Partners and Affiliates

The Center expands its reach locally and globally through partnerships with state and regional organizations, national and international organizations, and within the University of Maryland system.  Center partners represent a wide range of disciplines, including cultural anthropology, archaeology, historic preservation, community development, environmental sciences, and others.  The Center continues to develop partnerships with organizations and individuals dedicated to leadership in the field of heritage resources.

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State and Regional Partners

*         Catoctin Center for Regional Studies (Maryland)

*         Deal Island Skipjack Heritage Committee

*         Historic Annapolis Foundation

*         Maryland Historical Trust

*         Graduate Program in Historic Preservation, U. of Pennsylvania

*         Shenandoah Center for Heritage and the Environment

*         Somerset County Arts Council

*         SRI Foundation

 National Partners

*         Archeology and Ethnography Program, National Park Service

*         National Park Service—Center for Cultural Resources, Valley Forge

*         National Park Service—National Capital Region, Regional Archaeology Program

*         Society for American Archaeology


I
nternational Partners 

 

*         Ename Center for Public Archaeology and Heritage Presentation, Belgium

 

University of Maryland Partners

*         American Studies Department

*         Baha’i Chair for World Peace

*         Center for International Development and Conflict Management

*         Historic Preservation Program

*         Maryland Population Research Center

*         Office of Continuing and Extended Education

*         Study Abroad Office


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The Center is pleased to have the following individuals as Center Affiliates.  Our Center Affiliates represent the diversity of approaches to heritage and complement the core faculty in the Center’s many initiatives. Please note affiliation extends only to the individual, unless the Center has a partnership agreement with the affiliate's institution.  The home institution of each affiliate is provided for informational purposes only.

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Affiliate

Home Institution

William Bechhoefer

School of Architecture, University of Maryland

Ben Blount

Department of Anthropology, University of Georgia

Peter Brosius

Department of Anthropology, University of Georgia

Suheil Bushrui

Baha’i Chair for World Peace

Dirk Callebaut

Executive Director, Ename Center for Public Archaeology and Heritage Presentation, Belgium

Wayne E. Clark

Executive Director, Office of Museum Services, Jefferson Patterson Park and Museum

Elaine Eff

Director, Cultural Conservation Program, Maryland Historical Trust

Barbara Franco

Executive Director, The Historical Society of Washington, D.C.

Charles Hall

State Terrestrial Archeologist, Maryland Historical Trust

Dean Herrin

Catoctin Center for Regional Studies, Maryland

Walter Arby Holland

President, Deal Island-Chance Lion's Club

Mary Hufford

Director, Center for Folklore and Ethnography, University of Pennsylvania

Barbara J. Little

Archeology and Ethnography Program, National Park Service

Randall Mason

Graduate Program in Historic Preservation, School of Design, University of Pennsylvania

Francis P. McManamon

Archeology and Ethnography Program, National Park Service

Fred Peak

Deal Island-Chance Lion’s Club

Joanna Wheeler Peak

Somerset County Arts Council

Stephen R. Potter

Regional Archeologist, National Capital Region, National Park Service

Stephen Prince

Director, Mid-Atlantic Regional Earth Sciences Applications Center, University of Maryland

Peter Stone

International Centre for Cultural and Heritage Studies, University of Newcastle upon Tyne

Jack Sullivan

Landscape Architecture Program, University of Maryland

Edvard Thorsett

Shenandoah Center for Heritage and the Environment 

Vibert L. White

Department of History, University of Central Florida

Eldon Willing, Jr.

Retired Skipjack Captain, Chance, Maryland

 

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Program Areas

 The Center conducts and supports activities in four broad program areas:

 

*         Research        

*         Education

*         Debate forum

*         Public outreach

 

These programs are designed to incorporate a wide range of disciplines, including cultural anthropology, archaeology, historic preservation, community development, environmental sciences, and others. Through activities in these program areas the Center is able to reach diverse communities and continue playing a central role in the comprehensive study of heritage resources.

 

 

Center research efforts are extensive and varied, investigating heritage issues at the local-regional level as well as the international level (see accompanying chapters in this report highlighting various projects).  From archaeology of the first known town incorporated by an African American to collaborative research with communities of Watermen on Maryland’s Eastern Shore, Center faculty are working together with partner organizations and affiliates to address important aspects of heritage.  Projects like the archaeology of Monocacy National Battlefield and the Archaeology of Annapolis program highlight the engagement of contemporary communities with the colonial past.  Research on the development of heritage tourism in the Delmarva Peninsula and the recovery of heritage for communities on Maryland’s Eastern Shore demonstrate the importance of heritage in everyday life.  A recent grant application to the Library of Congress to preserve digital data on heritage would provide permanent access to the rich resources of all the Center’s research projects.

 

The Center holds two annual summer field schools – one in Annapolis, Maryland and one in Belgium.  This year, under the sponsorship of the National Science Foundation’s Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program, the Center will add a new field school at New Philadelphia, Illinois.  The Center also continues to provide educational opportunities for professionals, at both the national and international level. For example, the Center continues to work with the National Park Service and has produced a guide for the upcoming training program in archaeology and interpretation.  Also, Erve Chambers continues to teach a module on the social and cultural consequences of tourism in the International Tourism Management Program for the Associazione per I’Istituzione Libera Universita Nuorese (AILUN) in Sardinia, Italy. 

 

The Center reaches a broad community by sponsoring and participating in workshops, conferences and seminars, promoting debate and dialogue on heritage issues.  In 2003 the Center played an important role in the 5th World Archaeological Congress, held in Washington D.C., highlighting the scope of the Center’s activities to an international forum.  Former Assistant Director Don Jones chaired a panel on heritage tourism at a pre-conference workshop, and numerous faculty members and affiliates gave presentations at the Congress itself.  Erve Chambers was recently selected as Program Chair for the 2005 Society for Applied Anthropology meetings for which the general theme will be “Heritage, Environment, and Tourism.”  The Center will be participating in the organization of this national conference.

 An important part of the Center’s mission is public outreach, with the goal of educating and advising on the development of sustainable heritage resources.  To this end the Center works with partner organizations and others on the full range of heritage issues.  Specific outreach efforts this past year include two workshops held at the Wye Research and Education Center for watermen, scientists, and resource managers to address the management and future of blue crab fishery.  Paul Shackel recently consulted with cultural resource manager Paul Deminco, of NASA Goddard Space Agency to avoid the destruction of historic resources in the planning of a new road.  The Annapolis project continued its leadership in outreach by opening its urban archaeology excavations to the public and facilitating a field school for local African American children, directed by Ms. Maisha Washington of the Banneker Douglass Museum.  Members of the Monocacy National Battlefield project gave numerous presentations on their ongoing work throughout 2003 at a variety of venues. In addition, the Center continues to work in an advisory capacity with many local heritage organizations, including the New Philadelphia Association (Illinois), the Shenandoah Center (Virginia), and the Historical Society of Washington, D.C.

 The work of the Center has gained increasing attention in the past year.  Center projects were featured in a host of media including Chesapeake Quarterly, The Baltimore Sun, Frederick Magazine, The Washington Post, and others.  Please visit the Center’s website for links to these and other recent news articles or for more information on all the Center’s work: www.heritage.umd.edu (see also Appendix A).

 

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Research

Center Faculty are internationally recognized leaders in heritage and natural resource management.   Research conducted by faculty cover a broad spectrum of heritage issues with particular focus on local and national heritage.

 Faculty Research Areas

 Current research projects being conducted by or through the Center describe the breadth of issues being investigated.

*         Erve Chambers continues his studies of tourism and heritage representation on Maryland’s Eastern Shore.

*         Donald Jones assisted the Historical Society of Washington D.C. and the DC Preservation Office, among other agencies, in developing an exhibit for the new DC City Museum.

*         Mark Leone continues his work with the Archaeology of Annapolis program and has expanded this project to include excavations at Wye Island.  His project will undertake several excavations in the Annapolis Historic District in 2004.

*         Lena Mortensen continues her research on the social context of the archaeological site of Copán, Honduras, and the development of regional heritage tourism.

*         Michael Paolisso continues his research on the Chesapeake Bay focused on differing views of heritage held by various stakeholder groups affected by changes in natural resources and policy and management responses.

*         Paul Shackel continues his research at Monocacy National Battlefield and at New Philadelphia, Illinois, site of the earliest known antebellum town incorporated by an African American.

Grant- and Contract-Funded Research

Recently funded faculty research includes the following projects:

*         Development and implementation of an “archaeology and interpretation” curriculum for the National Park Service, Archeology and Ethnography Program (Shackel and Jones/Mortensen)

*         Continuation of Maryland Sea Grant to complete monographs related to Chesapeake Bay heritage and environmentalism (Chambers and Paolisso)

*         Continuation of Maryland Sea Grant to use collaborative learning, cultural models, and dialogue to advance co-management planning of the Chesapeake Bay Blue Crab Fishery (Paolisso and Chambers)

*         Development of regional library and backlog cataloging at the Museum Resource Center, National Capital Region (Shackel)

*         Continuation of research grants from the National Park Service, National Capital Region for archaeological investigations, analysis, and publication of research (Shackel)

*         Continuing archaeological investigations at Wye Hall in Queen’s County and in the Historic District of Annapolis (Leone)

 Grant Proposal Assistance

 The Center grants limited financial assistance to researchers to assist in the development of research projects related to various aspects of heritage. 

       In 2003 these projects included: 

*         Proposal development related to heritage research in the Chance/Deal Island communities on Maryland’s Eastern Shore (Chambers and Paolisso)

*         Proposal development related to the New Philadelphia project in Illinois (Shackel) 

Grant Assistance awards and other forms of project assistance have led to important heritage initiatives beyond those undertaken by the Center’s core faculty.  For instance, building on a Grant Proposal Assistance award in 2001, Dr. Judith Freidenberg of the Department of Anthropology at the University of Maryland has continued her research on the “The Anthropology of the Immigrant Life-Course.”  As part of this project, Dr. Freidenberg is focusing on Hispanic immigrant communities in Montgomery and Prince Georges counties in Maryland.  With financial assistance from the Center, Freidenberg and her collaborators held a “Community Museum” workshop in Langley Park, Maryland that explored such broad issues as heritage awareness, validating U.S. citizen’s interest in learning about heritage, and identifying methods to share Latino heritage.  In addition, the workshop elicited more specific discussion on the proposed museum, selecting artifacts to share, heritage and curation, and program planning.

 In 2003 the Center began providing support and assistance to "The Archaeological Heritage of Labor in Maryland,” a joint project with the Labor Heritage Foundation, coordinated by University of Maryland Masters of Applied Anthropology graduate student, Robert Chidester.  This project builds on Chidester’s internship with the Labor Heritage Foundation, during which he prepared a multiple-property submission of archaeological sites related to industrial laborers in Maryland to the National Register of Historic Places.  Chidester is currently preparing a survey of the organized labor community in Maryland to identify and prepare additional site nominations that recognize this important and under-represented facet of Maryland’s heritage.

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Education                                                  

The Center develops and implements innovative education and training programs in heritage and heritage-related fields.  Currently the Center offers opportunities for both students and professionals through intensive field schools and short training courses.  Upcoming and ongoing educational programs include the following:

*         Archaeology and Heritage in Flanders, Belgium, with the Ename Center for Public Archaeology and Heritage, Belgium (held annually in the summer)

*         Archaeology and Interpretation, Shared Competency Curriculum with the National Park Service (through OCEE) (Fall 2004 through Summer 2005)

*         New Philadelphia Field School, sponsored by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates program (Summer 2004 - 2006)

*         International Tourism Management Training Program with the Associazione per l’Instituzione Libera Universita Nudrese (AILUN), Sardinia, Italy  (ongoing)

 Additionally, Shackel’s work with the Museum Resource Center of the National Park Service-National Capital Region provides opportunities for students from the University of Maryland to learn collections management skills under the direction of the National Park Service Collections Manager.  Participating students are busy cataloguing collections from several parks within the National Capital Region, in turn assisting the parks in fulfilling their obligation to protect and conserve the museum properties under their stewardship.

 

In July of 2003 the Center (together with the University of Maryland’s Office of Continuing Education, SRI Foundation, The Louis Berger Group, Inc., and other consultants) became a new vendor on a 5-year, multi-million dollar contract with the Federal Highway Administration (FHA) to develop and implement a wide variety of cultural and environmental training programs.  Under this contract OCEE and the Center (as the principals) have already been asked to submit 6 proposals to the FHA.  We are looking forward to numerous opportunities in 2004 through this new partnership.

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Outreach and Debate Forum                                             

The Center reaches out to the community through advising and participating in heritage initiatives.   Additionally, the Center’s work is featured in a variety of media, including popular and academic publications, community workshops, streaming video, and conference presentations.  Through these channels the Center provides access to and stimulates debate on the many dimensions of heritage resources.  Highlights of our outreach efforts for the past year include:

 

New Philadelphia, Illinois (Shackel)

*         Working with the Illinois State Historic Preservation Office, the Illinois State Museum, Illinois College and Hanibal LaGrange College to involve other students, faculty, and preservationists in the study of the site

*         Working with the Archaeological Conservancy to save and protect the land that contains the New Philadelphia site

 

Frederick County, Maryland

*         Delivering numerous presentations on the ongoing excavations at Monocacy National Battlefield to local historical societies and other public fora (Monocacy Staff)

*         Serving on the African American Resources – Culture and History committee (AARCH) to promote African-American history in Frederick County (Shackel)

 

Maryland’s Eastern Shore (Paolisso and Chambers)

*         Writing a life history book on a well-known skipjack captain to illustrate the social and cultural contexts of the Chesapeake Bay oyster fishery when it was dependent on skipjack vessels and dredging under sail

*         Held workshops on February 25, and March 25, 2003 for watermen, scientists, and resource managers to address the blue crab fishery (held at the Wye Research and Education Center)

*         In collaboration with Rockcreek Methodist Church in Chance, Maryland completed digital map of the church cemetery with accompanying database for community kinship information (accessible on CHRS website)

 

Shenandoah Center (Chambers)

*         Advising Dr. Edvard Thorsett (Center Affiliate) with public outreach and tourism development of this new heritage center in Front Royal, Virginia

 

Washington, DC (Jones)

*         Collaborated with affiliate Barbara Little and numerous local and national agencies to produce “Washington Underground: Archaeology in Downtown Washington, DC, a walking and metro guide to the past...”

*         Chaired a panel on Heritage Tourism in the workshop “Working Together: Archaeology in Global Perspective,” held in conjunction with the 5th World Archaeological Congress

 

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Center Highlights

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Heritage and the Chesapeake Bay

 

Erve Chambers was recently commissioned by the Maryland Sea Grant College to write a monograph on heritage, based on his continuing work in the Chesapeake Bay region.  The following is an excerpt from this upcoming monograph, Heritage Matters: Culture, History and Chesapeake Bay Musings, due out in 2004

 

The Ambiguity of Heritage

 Like virtually every other interest-rich place on earth, the Chesapeake Bay is becoming reconfigured in the shapes and musings of a vigorously imagined and sometimes deeply contested heritage.  What is involved here is much greater than a simple increase in our appreciation for the region’s varied histories, traditions and natural places.  What we have before us are the elements of a major transformation in our thinking about what the Bay is and what it represents–a transformation just as sure and considerably quicker than the glacial retreats that initially formed the Bay, and as profound and far-reaching as the early 17th century entrance of the Chesapeake Bay populace into a burgeoning world market economy.  The effects of the re-invention of the Chesapeake Bay region into the terms and shapes of modern heritage representations are perhaps as difficult to discern as it would have been to try to predict the outcomes of these earlier transformations.  And it is equally difficult to believe from our present vantage point that such effects could be anywhere near as profound, although they certainly are.  Heritage is no longer merely embodied in faint memories and nostalgias.  It has become a major conceptual tool in the imagining and construction of our futures, serving in multiple ways to define our places and reshape our environments.

“Heritage” has become a vital addition to the modern places we all inhabit.  It is a major industry of the mind as well as of the pocketbook, and has become an increasingly important part of the imagery through which we try to secure ourselves in a somewhat outrageous new world.  Compared to the places in which most of us over the age forty or so grew up, this burgeoning new world seems rootless and transient.  It is a landscape that could well be more like the one humans lived in a few thousand years ago, before we all became “civilized” and settled in our ways.  That was when we were all more less hunters and gatherers on this fine earth, with a past that I imagine we carried along quite as easily as we packed and conveyed our shelter from one place to another.  The more recent and self conscious ideas of heritage that we now entertain can be thought of as a way to try to slow things down and keep ourselves still settled if not civilized, and since actually slowing things down is not really an option, what we seem left with is the invention of particular “heritages” that permit us to properly respect and try to situate ourselves within a past without having to hold up the future.

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Now in its 23rd year, the Archaeology in Annapolis program, directed by Mark Leone, continued its long term success and developed new outreach initiatives.  In addition to the ongoing excavations in Eastport, the oldest suburb of Annapolis, the 2003 summer field school in urban archaeology was open to the public.  A major excavation was begun in the 18th century customs house on the Annapolis waterfront, in preparation for the building’s becoming a visitor’s center and museum for Historic Annapolis Foundation.

 

 

Field School on African American Archaeology

Ms. Maisha Washington, of the Banneker-Douglass Museum, the State of Maryland’s Center for Afro-American History and Culture, teaches African American school children about archaeology through model excavations.  Her archaeology course, developed with support from the Maryland Historic Trust, includes instruction in stratigraphic excavation, recording, and artifact identification and reconstruction.  Ms. Washington teaches elements of an Afro-centric approach to archaeology both to her class and on streaming video sponsored by the Smithsonian Institution.  Access to the streaming video is available online through the website of the Smithsonian Institution’s Anacostia Museum and Center for African American History and Culture at  www.anacostia.si.edu.

 

The University of Maryland and Historic Annapolis Foundation sponsored the placement of Ms. Washington’s field program in the Archaeology in Annapolis laboratory adjacent to the William Paca Garden.  The field school included 20 Annapolis children of African American background from 6-12 years of age.  Archaeology in Annapolis supplied the equipment, as it has for three years.  Jason Shellenhamer, an MAA candidate at the University of Maryland, gave the young students tours of the William Paca Garden and introduced them to the archaeology and the interpretations of the garden based on historic excavations.

 

Public Teaching through Archaeology

Six newspaper articles on the work of Archaeology in Annapolis appeared during the summer and fall of 2003.  Science articles appeared in the Annapolis Evening Capitol, the Baltimore Sun, and the Washington Post.  The articles on archaeology featured Jason Shellenhamer’s free tours of the William Paca garden which were supported by the Maryland Historical Trust.  The Washington Post featured Maisha Washington’s model excavation for Annapolis children.  “Researching Maryland,” produced by University of Maryland TV, showed a fifteen minute presentation featuring the work done by Matthew Palus on Eastport archaeology, as a part of the Archaeology in Annapolis project.

 

The first of a planned set of symposia provided an overview of all Maryland archaeology on November 8 at the University of Maryland, College Park.  This day-long meeting of professionals and avocational archaeologists gathered to listen to summaries of some of the most important excavations in the state.  The symposium was organized by Dr. James Gibb and was supported by the Archaeological Society of Maryland, The Council for Maryland Archaeology, and the Maryland Historical Trust.


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New Philadelphia Field School

 

In 2003 the New Philadelphia archaeological research project was selected by the National Science Foundation to participate in its Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program.  In summer 2004 the Center will sponsor the first field school under this program.

 

New Philadelphia

 

New Philadelphia is the first town incorporated by an African American in the pre-emancipation era.  The town thrived as a small, integrated rural town with craftsmen, laborers, farmers, and their families until the railroad company routed its line around New Philadelphia in 1869.  Residents unincorporated the place in 1885 and it slowly disappeared from the landscape as people moved to the larger surrounding towns and distant urban areas.  Today, the site is situated in a plowed field with only a few remaining fieldstone foundations. 

 

The goal of this research project is to understand how ethnicity and race may have influenced consumer choice, landscapes, and diet. This study will add a new perspective to understanding the changing relationships between whites and blacks in an integrated community over the course of the antebellum and postbellum eras.  Students in the field school will participate in the research design, data collection, and analysis of the archeological materials under the mentorship of an interdisciplinary team of professionals. 

 

The program will be divided into three components: a one-week orientation and background session that includes the geophysical testing of archaeological sites; a four week archaeology field season collecting data; and a five week session at ISM scientifically analyzing material culture and archaeobiological data.  

 

This REU program will recruit 9 undergraduates from a  diversified pool of talented students. Our goal is to increase the participation of women and underrepresented minorities and we will target historically black colleges.  Because this project is located in one of the poorest regions in Illinois, it is difficult for undergraduates in this area to receive interdisciplinary training that incorporates scientific research.  Therefore, regional colleges and universities will be another of our target areas since many of these schools have limited research programs. 

 

 This cooperative program brings various professionals and community members together to help enhance the quality and availability of undergraduate research experiences.  The University of Maryland is the field school’s host institution, with substantial cooperation from the Illinois State Museum.  The New Philadelphia Association, a local non-profit group and the University of Illinois will also provide support.


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Archaeology and Interpretation: “An Inspiring Guide”

The Center is working together with the National Park Service Archeology and Ethnography Program, the National Park Service Mather Training Center, and the University of Maryland’s Office of Continuing Education to develop and implement a four-module training course in Archaeology and Interpretation.  This shared training course is designed for National Park Service professionals.  Below is short excerpt of the curriculum guide for the upcoming course, created by former Assistant Director Don Jones, and affiliates Barbara Little and Frank McManamon.

 An Inspiring Guide’: Effective Interpretation of Archeological Resources

 Overview of the Program

 This training program was developed for the National Park Service’s shared competency program in archeological interpretation.  The shared competency is: Archeologists and interpreters work together to provide effective and accurate interpretation of archeological information and resources to the public

 What are the objectives of this training program?

 This four-module program is designed to provide archeologists and interpreters with a greater understanding of each respective discipline and to result in greater opportunities for archeologists and interpreters to work together.

 Mission of the National Park Service

The National Park Service preserves unimpaired the natural and cultural resources and values of the national park system for the enjoyment, education, and inspiration of this and future generations.  The Park Service cooperates with partners to extend the benefits of natural and cultural resources conservation and outdoor recreation throughout this country and the world.

(National Park Service Strategic Plan FY 2000-20005)

 Both archeological research and public interpretation are integral parts of the mission of the National Park Service. Given the extent of land, number of archeological sites, and number of people who visit our National Parks, the importance of both archeology and interpretation is extensive.

 Meeting the Mission

Archeology and interpretation are essential components of efforts to fulfill the Park Service mission. Both archeological research and public interpretation help identify the “historic objects” that deserve protection and stewardship and assist in the “public enjoyment” of these resources. In promoting greater understanding of the public benefits of cultural resources, interpretation helps promote the stewardship of those resources.

Today, “historic objects” includes a wide range of artifacts, buildings, ruins, landscape features, even undiscovered archeological sites. Thus, archeological surveys are necessary to identify where, what kind, and how many “historic objects” are under Park Service control. Evaluation and analysis are required to determine the appropriate place these resources hold, or should hold, in our national collective memory. Furthermore, many natural resources, such as those found in the earliest National Parks, have become cultural icons and, thus, are integral parts of our cultural heritage.

 

Public interpretation is required to ensure that park visitors can fully enjoy the range of natural and cultural resources located within our National Parks. Archeological research has become increasingly specialized as a result of advances in methods and theory. Therefore, interpretation, which itself is becoming increasingly more sophisticated, has taken on greater importance in making archeological information accessible and comprehensible to the public.

“The stories we tell, and the resources we manage and protect, must be placed in a context of broader meaning and significance.  When we interpret well, our audiences become participants, not spectators, and the resources we interpret become theirs.  When we do our job well, visitors develop a deeper commitment to the stewardship of our national treasures.”

 National Park Service
“Compelling Stories Workbook”, n.d.

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Maryland’s Labor Heritage

Last year the Center initiated support for a project on labor heritage in Maryland developed by Bob Chidester, graduate student in the Department of Anthropology Master’s of Applied Anthropology program at the University of Maryland, College Park.  A summary of the project, written by Chidester, appears below.

 The Archaeological Heritage of Labor in Maryland

The project, “The Archaeological Heritage of Labor in Maryland” is being jointly sponsored by the Center for Heritage Resource Studies of the Department of Anthropology, University of Maryland-College Park and the Labor Heritage Foundation of Washington, D.C.  Rather than excavating new sites, this project is designed to facilitate the use of information gained from already-recorded archaeological sites related to industrial laborers and their communities in Maryland during the historic period.  The goals of the project are to inform the public of the important contributions of industrial laborers to Maryland’s history and to help the state’s organized labor community make its heritage more visible by officially commemorating sites important to the labor movement.

Thus far, the project has two main products.  The first is a comprehensive survey of Maryland’s industrial and labor history as contained in the State Historic Preservation Office’s Inventory of Historic Properties and Archaeological Site Records.  This report will be delivered to a number of libraries and archives where it will be easily accessible to the public.  The second product has been a multiple-property submission (MPS) to the National Register of Historic Places entitled, “The Archaeology of Domestic and Social Life in Maryland’s Industrial Communities.”  This MPS is still under review by the Maryland Historical Trust.  Two individual sites have been nominated under the MPS, with more nominations planned.  The first site is the Laurel Factory House in Prince George’s County, built by the owners of the Patuxent Cotton Manufacturing Company in the 1840s to house mill workers.  The second site is the community of Rossville, also in Prince George’s County.  Rossville was founded in the 1880s by formerly enslaved workers at the Muirkirk Iron Furnace, many of whom continued to work at the furnace after emancipation.

In addition to further nominations to the National Register under the MPS, several public education initiatives are planned.  A National Register Travel Itinerary based upon Maryland’s industrial communities is being designed, and several lectures will be given to local chapters of the Archeological Society of Maryland (ASM), a largely amateur organization.  Hopefully these lectures will lead to publications in ASM’s journal, Maryland Archeology, as well as in local historical society newsletters and other publications.  Finally, members of the organized labor community throughout Maryland will be surveyed for information concerning historical and archaeological sites that are locally important in labor history, with an emphasis on union halls and old union hall sites.  These activities will be coordinated by Robert Chidester (Masters of Applied Anthropology Program, University of Maryland) and Saul Schniderman (Secretary, Labor Heritage Foundation).


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Monocacy National Battlefield

Paul Shackel is co-PI, along with Stephen Potter, for a long-term research project at the Monocacy National Battlefield, under a cooperative agreement with the National Park Service.  The goal of the project is to provide an assessment of all cultural resources in the park. The following is an excerpt from an article about the Center’s work at Monocacy National Battlefield that appeared in The Baltimore Sun on October 29, 2003, by Frank D. Roylance

 

Unearthing Keys to the Past

 

On a grassy rise just west of Route 355 - once the main wagon road between Frederick and Georgetown - archaeologists are probing the earth for traces of what may be the largest slave "village" ever uncovered in Maryland.

 

If they're right about the spot, as many as 90 African-Americans lived and worked in a row of wooden houses set on this low hill 200 years ago. They were enslaved to help work a 748-acre plantation founded in 1795 by Payen Boisneuf, a Frenchman who had fled a slave revolt in Haiti.

 

While no trace of the slave quarters remains above the ground, the National Park Service and the University of Maryland have joined forces to determine whether forgotten details of daily life in this community can still be uncovered.

 

"This is a really important, really significant site - important to our understanding of slavery in Maryland," said Joy Beasley, a National Park Service archaeologist and cultural resource manager for the Monocacy National Battlefield, where the dig is located.

Traces of the long-vanished slave community began to emerge last year during a 22-acre metal-detector survey of cultural resources on the property. Limited excavations this month have added to an inventory of thousands of artifacts.

 

Kneeling in the grass yesterday, University of Maryland archaeologist Brandon Bies sorted through dozens of plastic bags filled with metal buttons, iron nails, hinges, broken tobacco pipes, animal bones, fragments of broken brick, ceramic pottery and tableware. All of it points to a densely populated domestic settlement on about two-thirds of an acre. And it all dates to the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

 

Nearby, paid and volunteer archaeologists uncovered what appeared to be traces of a structure about 16 feet wide and 12 feet deep - similar to slave quarters unearthed elsewhere in the middle- Atlantic region.

 

"The kinds of artifacts are consistent with the kinds of artifacts from other slave contexts, in Virginia, for example," Beasley said.

 

Marylanders in 1800 saw little reason to record the details of slave life, she said, "so there is very little information about these people in the historical record. One of the only ways to learn about them is from the archaeological record."

 

This slave site is of particular interest, Beasley said, because it brings together an unexpected mix of cultural influences.

"It is very unusual in Maryland to have a plantation established by a French Catholic," she said. Most of Boisneuf's neighbors were German and English Protestants.

 

Stephen Potter, regional archaeologist for the park service, said the French influence is apparent in some interior details of the plantation's manor house, which still stands across a broad gully from the dig site.  Archaeologists will also be looking for African or Haitian influences at the site, because Boisneuf is known to have brought at least 14 slaves from Haiti when he fled.

The plantation probably produced small grains, corn and flax. The family purchased a northern parcel in 1795 that has since been swallowed up by Frederick's southward sprawl.

 

The southern property, about 274 acres purchased in 1798, is now part of the national battlefield. It includes a surviving stone house, built about 1760 and enlarged with a log second story to serve as the Boisneufs' first residence, and a larger home the family built nearby some years later.

 

Historians had almost no information about the plantation until they happened on the Niemcewicz memoir. Four miles before reaching Frederick on the Georgetown Pike he reported seeing "a row of wooden houses" -which archaeologists believe was the slave quarters - and "one stone house with the upper storeys painted white." That house is thought to be the stone and log dwelling.

 

By 1820, census records show only 40 slaves on the property. In 1827 it was sold, and eventually became known as the Best Farm. The slave quarters disappeared and the land was tilled by tenant farmers until 1993, when the park service acquired it as part of the Monocacy National Battlefield.

 

On July 9, 1864, 18,000 Confederate troops under Gen. Jubal Early clashed with 5,800 Union forces under Gen. Lew Wallace. The outnumbered northerners withdrew, but their action delayed the rebel advance on Washington long enough to allow the capital to build its defenses and thwart a rebel attack.

 

The park service will need more funding to continue the excavation, conserve the artifacts found there and interpret the site for park visitors.

 

"This represents a really important research opportunity," Beasley said. "It's also important that it is owned by the National Park Service, because the site is going to be protected."     

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Heritage and Tourism at the World Archaeological Congress

 

In June of 2003 the 5th World Archaeological Congress brought hundreds of representatives from around the world to Washington D.C. to discuss, examine, and evaluate how the past is understood within the context of contemporary society.  Former Center Assistant Director Don Jones was invited to chair a panel on heritage tourism at a pre-conference workshop entitled “Working Together: Archaeology in Global Perspective.”  Below is a summary of Jones’ contribution to the workshop. 

 

Heritage Tourism

 

Although heritage tourism can have a positive effect on local economics and interest in the past, any discussion of heritage must also deal with the effects of tourism on heritage sites themselves, sustainability, and what happens if interest wanes. Although the definition of heritage resources is evolving, it goes without saying that it is a finite resource, which is under siege by an increasingly larger and more complex modern world and the distance between the have and have nots in our global economy.  As with the past in general, what heritage is will be defined within the context of modern society and within local, regional, and global value systems. As such heritage is bestowed based on age or importance or association.  Heritage consists of the large and small, the spectacular and the mundane, and the remembered and forgotten.

 

It is clear that not all heritage has the same potential for tourism.  As a commodity heritage is subject to all the influences of a global market.  This allows management and business practices to be applied to heritage tourism to best utilize the resource in such a manner as to provide for the enjoyment of future generations.  Such concerns must also take into consideration local community support and involvement not just in highlighting their past but their involvement in how their past is presented as well as in the economic benefits of the tourism industry.  It is critical that this be done in a sustainable manner that benefits the community while at the same time preserving cultural dynamics and enhancing cross-cultural understanding. Developing such a process must take place between educated and trained heritage resource managers and all the stakeholders, including the local community. That is why universities worldwide must make this part of the curriculum in all the fields that apply such as archaeology, history, ecology, planning and development, business, information management, law, museum studies, anthropology, hospitality administration, finance, etc.  Such an interdisciplinary approach will help create a balance between using heritage resources before they are gone versus preserving heritage as a museum.

 

 

 

The workshop was cosponsored by the Elliott School of International Affairs, Culture in Global Affairs Program at George Washington University; the Southeast Archaeological Center, National Park Service; and Florida State University.

 

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Appendix A.

 Table 1.  Current Center Research Projects

Principal

Project

Funding  Agency

Paolisso

Chambers

Using collaborative learning, cultural models, and dialogue to advance co-management planning of the Chesapeake Bay Blue Crab Fishery

Maryland Sea Grant College

Chambers

Preparation of a monograph related to Chesapeake Bay Heritage

Maryland Sea Grant College

Paolisso

Preparation of a monograph related to Chesapeake Bay Environmentalism

Maryland Sea Grant College

 

 

 

Shackel

Archaeological identification and evaluation study, Monocacy National Battlefield Park

National Park Service—
National Capital Region

Shackel

Best Farm compliance projects, Monocacy National Battlefield Park

National Park Service – National Capital Region

Shackel

Archaeological backlog cataloging, Phase IV

National Park Service—
National Capital Region

Shackel

Administrative History for Harpers Ferry National Historic Park

Catoctin Center for Regional History

Shackel

Development of professional training courses at National Training Center, Harpers Ferry (w/ OCEE)

National Park Service – National Capital Region

Shackel

Development of regional library at Museum Resource Center, National Capital Region

National Park Service – National Capital Region

Shackel

Backlog cataloging at Museum Resource Center, National Capital Region

National Park Service – National Capital Region

 

 

 

Shackel / Jones

Development of mixed-media training course to support effective interpretation of archaeological resources in national parks (w/ OCEE)

National Park Service—
Archeology and Ethnography Program

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