2nd  Annual Report

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Second Annual Report

Center for Heritage Resource Studies
University of Maryland, College Park

Dr. Paul Shackel, Director
Dr. Donald Jones, Assistant Director
January 2003

Contents

Letter from the Director

 

Part I:  Center Accomplishments

 Center Faculty and Staff

 Programs Areas

 Local-Regional Heritage Initiative

 International Heritage Initiative

 Center Partners

 Center Affiliates

Part II:  Center Research, Education, and Outreach Activities

  Faculty Research Areas

  Grant- and Contract-Funded Research

  Grant Proposal Assistance

  Education

  Public Outreach Efforts

Part III:  Center Highlights

  Archaeology & Interpretation in the National Park Service

  New Philadelphia, Illinois

  Archaeology in Annapolis

  Monocacy National Battlefield

  Anthropology on Maryland’s Eastern Shore

  City Museum of Washington, DC

  Belgian Delegation Visit

  Xiling, China:  Site of the Western Qing Tombs

  World Wide Web Site

List of Tables

Table 1.  Current Center Research Projects

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            Center for Heritage Resource Studies

 

 Letter from the Director
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January 2003

 

Greetings,

 

Over the past year the Center for Heritage Resource Studies has created strong ties to regional, national and international organizations and we look forward to strengthening these bonds and creating new partnerships.  Much of this year’s success was possible because of the enthusiastic support from our affiliates, here in the United States and abroad, as well as from our College of Behavioral and Social Sciences and the Graduate School.

Center faculty continued research on Maryland’s Eastern Shore on issues related to archaeology, heritage and natural resource development, and tourism; we have maintained a successful partnership with the National Park Service, continuing several research projects in the National Capital Region; and we are partnering with other universities on various research and applied projects.  We also look forward to our continued work with the Historical Society of Washington, DC on the development of an archaeology exhibit for the new DC City Museum, scheduled to open May 2003.

We are working cooperatively with the National Park Service to develop a course for an archaeology and interpretation competency curriculum.  We also will maintain our successful and rewarding Study Abroad course in Belgium, and we are developing an agreement for a heritage study course in Xiling, China.  In the upcoming year we will go forward in our efforts in Continuing and Extended Education.

In additions to our own direct research and educational programs, the Center has supported projects in the anthropology of the immigrant life-course in the local Hispanic community, a workshop on “Reconstructing African Origins in Cameroon,” and the research and development of a heritage and environment center in Front Royal (Shenandoah Valley), Virginia with Shenandoah University.

The work performed by and through the Center over the past year has created positive momentum for our future.  We look forward to our continued cooperation with our University, our affiliates, and our partners, as we expect many exciting new developments over the coming year.  We are all pleased about what we have accomplished at the Center for Heritage Resource Studies and are even more excited about the year(s) to come.

 

Best wishes for a wonderful and prosperous new year,

Paul Shackel
Professor
Director, Center for Heritage Resource Studies

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Executive Summary

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Founded in December 2000, the Center for Heritage Resource Studies at the University of Maryland, College Park was formed to bring scholars and practitioners together to support a comprehensive approach to the study of heritage.  The Center provides a forum for exchanging ideas, provides educational and professional training opportunities, conducts research projects associated with all aspects of heritage resource studies, and is developing various public outreach efforts.  This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of the Center during its second year, from January to December 2002.

The first section presents a summary of the year’s accomplishments, including a list of the Center’s faculty, staff, affiliates, and partners.   The second section gives detailed information on Center research and outreach activities.  The third section presents highlights of Center research, training, and other programs.

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Part I:  Center Accomplishments

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Founded in December 2000, the Center for Heritage Resource Studies at the University of Maryland, College Park was formed to bring scholars and practitioners together to support a comprehensive approach to the study of heritage.  The Center provides a forum for exchanging ideas, provides educational and professional training opportunities, conducts research projects associated with all aspects of heritage resource studies, and is developing various public outreach efforts.  This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments of the Center from January to December 2002.

Center Faculty/Staff

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Director Paul A. Shackel (Ph.D), Professor of Anthropology
Assistant Director Donald G. Jones (Ph.D.), Faculty Research Associate
Faculty Members Mark P. Leone (Ph.D.), Professor of Anthropology
Erve M. Chambers (Ph.D.), Professor of Anthropology
Michael Paolisso (Ph.D.), Assistant Professor of Anthropology

The establishment of the Center for Heritage Resource Studies recognizes that the sustainability of our cultural and environmental resources is dependent upon understanding the ways in which heritage is defined, expressed, and used to further economic development and political activity.  Furthermore, it is critical that research and educational efforts conducted and sponsored by the Center be formulated in a way that can be readily applied by those who are responsible for the management of our historic, cultural, and environmental resources.  In this manner, the activities of the Center for Heritage Resource Studies will contribute substantially to an increased awareness of the need for responsible heritage development.

During this past year, the Center has expanded its programs in research, training, and outreach and increased our funding base.  The Center staff and faculty remain fully engaged in furthering the goals of the Center and committed to expanding our reach, both locally and abroad.

Program Areas

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The Center conducts and supports activities in four broad program areas—debate forum, research, education, and public outreach.  These programs are designed to incorporate a wide range of disciplines, including cultural anthropology, archaeology, historic preservation, community development, environmental sciences, and others.

The Center sponsors and participates in workshops and seminars.  For example, Michael Paolisso conducted a workshop at the Wye Research and Education Center to address the blue crab fishery industry on Maryland’s Eastern Shore, and Donald Jones served on a panel, along with other area archaeologists and museum specialists, to assist the Historical Society of Washington, DC with development of an archaeology exhibit and programming for the new DC City Museum.

Center research efforts are extensive and varied (see accompanying chapters in this report highlighting various projects), ranging from archaeological excavations in Annapolis and at a Civil War battlefield to the support of other faculty in their efforts to reconstruct African American origins in Cameroon and to document the immigrant life-course for Maryland’s Hispanic community, among other projects.

In addition to our annual summer courses in Annapolis and in Belgium, the Center is embarking on a number of other educational training ventures.  The Center is working with the National Park Service to develop and implement a training program in archaeology and interpretation and Erve Chambers began teaching in the international tourism management program for the Associazione per I’Istituzione Libera Universita Nuorese (AILUN) in Sardinia, Italy.  The Center also is developing a summer study course, modeled on our Belgium Heritage course, in Xiling, China.

Our public outreach efforts include organization of a booth at the annual Labor Day Skipjack Festival on Deal Island; development of instructional videos, available online, for archaeological research in Annapolis; and working in an advisory capacity with numerous and varied local heritage organizations, including the New Philadelphia Association (Illinois), the Maritime Archaeology and History Society (Maryland), and the Historical Society of Washington, DC.

While these Center programs and activities are varied and wide-ranging in scope, they are organized into two broad initiatives—local-regional heritage and international heritage.

Local-Regional Heritage Initiative

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Recognizing that heritage issues often are specifically local in nature, the Center offers research, education, and public outreach  programs dedicated to promoting local and regional heritage resource studies in Maryland and in the Greater Washington, DC. area.  This initiative is linked to our International Heritage Initiative (see below) through innovative programs that showcase local examples of heritage projects to our international visitors.

Among others, these projects  include:

§         Using collaborative learning, cultural models, and dialogue to advance co-management planning of the Chesapeake Bay Blue Crab Fishery on Maryland’s Eastern Shore (Paolisso)

§         Research related to tourism and heritage in Delmarva (Chambers)

§         Archaeology in Annapolis and at Wye Hall in Queen’s County (Leone)

§         Archaeological investigations of farmsteads at Monocacy National Battlefield (Shackel)

§         Assisting with the development of an archaeology exhibit for the new DC City Museum (Jones).

The Center continues to look for partnership opportunities with local and regional organizations dedicated to heritage resource studies.

International Heritage Initiative

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The Center also expands its reach globally with international cultural exchange programs.  The Center has a partnership with the Ename Center for Public Archaeology and Heritage Presentation in Belgium, which forms the centerpiece of our annual Summer Study course in East Flanders and the surrounding region.

Recently, the Center along with the Department of Anthropology hosted a Belgian delegation, including Governor Balthazar and Deputy Minister of Culture Van Der Meirein of East Flanders during a week-long visit to the United States.  During this visit, Center faculty participated in a workshop sponsored by the National Park Service on the Ename Charter and a Historic Preservation Symposium in Annapolis.

The Center also is developing a cultural exchange program in China, based on our successful model in Belgium.  This past summer, Donald Jones traveled to Xiling, site of the Western Qing Tombs, with a UM delegation to discuss ways in which the Center may assist the Chinese government, particularly the Hebei Provincial Government, with preservation, heritage, and tourism issues at Xiling, which is a World Heritage Site.

 The Center is planning on offering a summer study course at Xiling in Summer 2004, and developing a faculty lecture exchange with Heibei University and Nanjing University.  In addition, the Center is hoping to attract several Chinese students to participate in our Summer Study program in Belgium this summer.  Center faculty also are making plans to attend an upcoming World Heritage Conference at Xiling this fall.

Center Partners

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The Center expands its reach beyond the University of Maryland campus through partnerships with state and regional organizations, national and international organizations, and within the University of Maryland system.  Center partners represent a wide range of disciplines, including cultural anthropology, archaeology, historic preservation, community development, environmental sciences, and others.

State and Regional Partners

 

Catoctin Center for Regional Studies (Maryland)

Historic Annapolis Foundation

Historical Society of Washington, DC (agreement in progress)

Maryland Historical Trust

Maryland State Highways Archaeology (Project Planning Division)

National Park Service—Center for Cultural Resources, Valley Forge

National Park Service—National Capital Region—Regional Archaeology Program

Shenandoah Center for Heritage and the Environment

URS Corporation

SRI Foundation

 

State and Regional Partners

 

Archeology and Ethnography Program, National Park Service

Society for American Archaeology

 

International Partners

 

Ename Center for Public Archaeology and Heritage Presentation, Belgium

 

University of Maryland Partners

 

American Studies Department

Baha’i Chair for World Peace

Center for International Development and Conflict Management

Center on Population, Gender and Social Inequality, Department of Sociology

Historic Preservation Program

Office of Continuing and Extended Education

Study Abroad Office

Center Affiliates

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The Center is pleased to have the following individuals as Center Affiliates.  Please note affiliation extends only to the individual, unless the Center has a partnership agreement with the affiliate's institution.  The home institution of each affiliate is provided for informational purposes only.

Affiliate

Home  Institution

William Bechhoefer

School of Architecture, University of Maryland

Ben Blount

Department of Anthropology, University of Georgia

Peter Brosius

Department of Anthropology, University of Georgia

Suheil Bushrui

Baha’i Chair for World Peace

Dirk Callebaut

Executive Director, Ename Center for Public Archaeology and Heritage Presentation, Belgium

Wayne E. Clark

Executive Director, Office of Museum Services, Jefferson Patterson Park & Museum

Elaine Eff

Director, Cultural Conservation Program, Maryland Historical Trust

Barbara Franco

Executive Director, The Historical Society of Washington, D.C.

Charles Hall 

State Terrestrial Archeologist, Maryland Historical Trust

Dean Herrin

Historian, Catoctin Center for Regional Studies, Maryland

Walter Arby Holland 

President, Deal Island-Chance Lion's Club (MD Eastern Shore)

Mary Hufford

Director, Center for Folklore and Ethnography, University of Pennsylvania

David W. Inouye

Graduate Program in Sustainable Development and Conservation Biology, University of Maryland

Ann Killebrew

Classics and Ancient Mediterranean Studies, Pennsylvania State University

Barbara J. Little

Archeology and Ethnography Program, National Park Service

Amanda Mason

Western Erie Canal Heritage Corridor Planning Commission, The Landmark Society of Western New York

Randall Mason

Director, Graduate Program in Historic Preservation, University of Maryland-College Park

Francis P. McManamon

Archeology & Ethnography Program, National Park Service

Fred Peak

Skipjack Heritage Committee (see Skipjack.net, MD Eastern Shore)

Joanna Wheeler Peak

Somerset County Arts Council (MD Eastern Shore)

Stephen R. Potter

Regional Archeologist, National Capital Region, National Park Service

Stephen Prince

Director, Mid-Atlantic Regional Earth Sciences Applications Center, University of Maryland

Peter Stone

International Centre for Cultural and Heritage Studies, United Kingdom

Jack Sullivan

Landscape Architecture Program, University of Maryland

Edvard Thorsett

Shenandoah Center for Heritage and the Environment (see Avtex Redevelopment Project)

Vibert L. White

African American Studies and Abraham Lincoln Presidential Center for Governmental Affairs, University of Illinois at Springfield

Eldon Willing, Jr.

Resident Historian, Chance, MD Eastern Shore

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Part II:  Center Research, Education, and Outreach Activities

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The Center both conducts and supports research and outreach projects covering all aspects of heritage.  The research interests of the principle Center members range from archaeological research to cultural landscapes to socio-cultural community investigations and tourism.  The Center conducts grant- and contract-funded research projects, supports research endeavors for other faculty and graduate students, and provides limited funding to support grant-writing activities for Center-related projects.

Members of the Center staff and our Center affiliates are well established in the fields of heritage and natural resource management and are recognized on an international level for their research.  The Department of Anthropology has strong and dynamic programs in public archaeology, heritage tourism, and resource management, with an emphasis on both cultural and natural resources.  All of these programs have ties to local, state, federal, and international institutions as well as private corporations and non-profit organizations.

In addition, the Center has created successful partnerships with these groups and will continue to link with other agencies and organizations that have similar goals.  The Center builds on these strengths to promote excellence in teaching and research, to establish productive relationships with local, state, and federal agencies and institutions, and to further our mission to become a national and international leader in heritage resource studies.

Faculty Research Areas

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Current research projects being conducted by or through the Center describe the breadth of issues being investigated.

·         Erve Chambers continues his studies of tourism on Maryland’s Eastern Shore and recently began teaching in the international tourism management program for the Associazione per I’Istituzione Libera Universita Nuorese (AILUN) in Sardinia, Italy;

·         Donald Jones is working with the Historical Society of Washington DC and the DC Preservation Office to develop an archaeology exhibit for the new DC City Museum;

·         Mark Leone continues his work with the Archaeology of Annapolis and has expanded this project to include excavations at Wye Island;

·         Michael Paolisso’s continues his research on the Chesapeake Bay focuses on differing views of heritage held by various stakeholder groups affected by natural resource management issues; and

·         Paul Shackel continues his research at Monocacy National Battlefield and has initiated field investigations at New Philadelphia, Illinois, site of the earliest known antebellum town incorporated by an African American.

Grant- and Contract-Funded Research

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Recently funded faculty research include the following projects (grants are listed in Table 1):

·         Maryland Sea Grant to complete a monograph related to Chesapeake Bay Heritage (Chambers);

·         Continuation of Maryland Sea Grant to use collaborative learning, cultural models, and dialogue to advance co-management planning of the Chesapeake Bay Blue Crab Fisher (Paolisso and Chambers);

·         Continuation of research grants from the National Park Service, National Capital Region for archaeological investigations, analysis, and publication of research (Shackel);

·        Technical support for a proposal related to the development of a heritage resource center in Front Royal, Virginia (Chambers);

·         Continuing archaeological investigations at Wye Hall in Queen’s County (Leone);

·         Development of a computer database of archaeological reports for research in the District of Columbia for the DC Preservation Office (Jones); and

·         Development of an “archaeology and interpretation” curriculum for the National Park Service, Archeology and Ethnography Program (Shackel and Jones).

Grant Proposal Assistance

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The Center grants limited financial assistance to other researchers to assist in the development of research projects.  These projects include

·        Workshop entitled “Reconstructing African American Origins in Cameroon” (Dr. Fatimah Jackson)

·         Research on the anthropology of the immigrant life-course (Dr. Judith Freidenberg);

·         Research and development of the Shenandoah Center for Heritage and the Environment, Virginia (Dr. Edvard Thorsette); and

·         Proposal development related to heritage research in the Chance/Deal Island communities on MD’s Eastern Shore (Chambers and Paolisso).

These awards are intended to provide assistance in developing research projects related to various aspects of heritage.

Education

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The Center is develops and implements numerous educational training programs.  Upcoming educational programs are listed below.

·         Archaeology and Heritage in Flanders, Belgium, with the Ename Center for Public Archaeology and Heritage, Belgium (Summer 2003)

·         Archaeology and Interpretation, Shared Competency Curriculum with the National Park Service (Fall 2003 – Summer 2004)

·         Heritage Study Tour at Xiling, China and Surrounding Sites (planned for Summer 2004)

·         Proposal submitted (with the Office of Continuing Education) to the Federal Highway Administration for a 5-year- multi-million contract to develop and implement a wide variety of cultural and environmental training programs (OCE and Center are leads with the SRI Foundation, The Louis Berger Group, Inc., and other consultants).

 

Table 1.  Current Center Research Projects

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principal

project

agency

Paolisso
Chambers

Using collaborative learning, cultural models, and dialogue to advance co-management planning of the Chesapeake Bay Blue Crab Fishery

Maryland Sea Grant College

     

Chambers

Preparation of a monograph related to Chesapeake Bay Heritage

Maryland Sea Grant College

     

Shackel

NPS-NCR 19:  Archaeological identification and evaluation study, Monocacy National Battlefield Park

National Park Service—
National Capital Region

Shackel

NPS-NCR 20:  Archaeological backlog cataloging, Phase IV

National Park Service—
National Capital Region

Shackel

Administrative History for Harpers Ferry National Historic Park

Catoctin Center for Regional History

     

Shackel

Jones

Development of a mixed-media course of study to support effective interpretation of archaeological resources in national parks

National Park Service—
Archeology and Ethnography Program

     

Jones

Development of a database of archaeological reports for Washington, DC

DC Preservation Office and the DC Historical Society

     

Leone

Archaeology in Annapolis Project:  Mitigation at the Banneker-Douglass site

Maryland Humanities Council

Leone

Archaeology in Annapolis Project:  Documentary research, oral history, and archaeology at Wye Hall in Queen’s  County

Private landowner

   
Public Outreach Efforts

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The Center for Heritage Resource Studies reaches interested members of the public through lectures, seminars, conferences, publications, the World Wide Web, and fieldwork opportunities.  As the debate forum will help bridge the gap between those working the academic and applied fields, the Center’s public outreach program will serve to bridge the gap between professionals and the interested public, particularly in areas such as heritage development and tourism.

Additional outreach efforts in development include popular publications (articles for newsletters, tourism journals, etc.), a lecture and/or workshop series, and development of continuing education courses tailored to various groups including teachers, tour planners, etc.

Our outreach efforts for the past year include:

Maritime Historical Society (Shackel)

§         Working with the Maritime Archaeology and History Society (MAHS) to survey the Potomac River region near Harpers Ferry, West Virginia (Shackel)

New Philadelphia, Illinois (Shackel)

§         Working with the New Philadelphia Association and the University of Illinois-Springfield to develop an archaeological survey of New Philadelphia, Illinois

§         The New Philadelphia project also involves working with the Illinois State Historic Preservation Office, the Illinois State Museum, Illinois College and Hanibal LaGrange College to involve other students, faculty, and preservationists in the study of the site

§          Working with the Archaeological Conservancy to save and protect the land that contains the New Philadelphia site

Maryland’s Eastern Shore (Paolisso and Chambers)

§          Heritage research on Deal Island on the history and heritage of watermen, particularly the sail-powered skipjack

§          Organized a booth at the annual Labor Day Skipjack Festival on Deal Island; the booth contained educational materials illustrating the culture and heritage of skipjacks, their captains, and watermen communities

§          Completed 25 interview of watermen, scientists, and resource managers about issues in the blue crab fishery to prepare for a workshop

§         Held a workshop November 15, 2002 for watermen, scientists, and resource managers to address the blue crab fishery (held at the Wye Research and Education Center)

§          Working with the Rockcreek Methodist Church in Chance, Maryland to prepare digital map of the church cemetery with accompanying database for community kinship information

Shenandoah Center (Chambers)

§          Advising Dr. Edvard Thorsett (Center Affiliate) with public outreach and tourism development of this new heritage center in Front Royal, Virginia

Washington, DC (Jones)

§          Working with the Historical Society of Washington, DC and the DC Preservation Office to develop an archaeology exhibit and programming for the new DC City Museum

§          Working with the DC Preservation Office (DC Archaeologist) to re-establish the Washington DC Archaeological Society to promote participation in programming activities at the new DC City Museum

In addition to these faculty, efforts Joy Beasley, project director of archaeological investigations at Monocacy National Battlefield (Shackel, Co-Principal Investigator with Stephen Potter, National Park Service) has presented a series of public talks to the Urbana Historical Society (MD), the Archaeological Society of Maryland/ Maryland Historical Trust’s annual workshop in archaeology, and other local interest groups.

Graduate Student Internships

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Along with the Department of Anthropology, the Center sponsors internships for graduate students in the Masters in Applied Anthropology program.  Several internships have been funded by the Maryland Historical Trust’s Heritage Grants program.  The Center would like to acknowledge the Landmark Society of Western New York, the Western Erie Canal Heritage Planning Commission, and the National Park Service, among others, which have accepted a number of University of Maryland interns over the past two years.

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Part III:   Center Highlights

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This series derives largely from the webpages on the Center's website as of January 2003.  For updated information, go to the Center's home page at www.heritage.umd.edu and select the appropriate link.

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Archaeology & Interpretation in the National Park Service

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The Center for Heritage Resource Studies currently is working with the National Park Service to develop training courses in archaeology and interpretation.  Working with the NPS Archeology & Ethnography Program and the NPS Mather Training Center in Harper's Ferry, West Virginia, the Center is developing a four-course module that builds on the new NPS “Archeology for Interpreters" on-line interactive training course.

The National Park Service regularly conducts professional training for its employees.  One of their recent programs involves the concept of “shared competency,” wherein employees in one division gain cross-training in different, but related, divisions.  The Center is assisting the National Park Service with the development and implementation of one of the first training opportunities in the Service’s broad-based shared competency program:  archaeology and interpretation at National Parks.

Archaeologists and public interpreters usually come from distinct and different academic backgrounds.  As a result, a “disconnect” can form between the information gained through archaeological investigations and the information that is interpreted to the public.  The shared competency program is being designed to give archaeologists the opportunity to learn more about the principles of public interpretation and to give interpreters information on archaeological methods and techniques.

The Center is assisting the Park Service with the development of a four-module program of study in archaeology and interpretation.  Development of the program will take place Spring and Summer 2003, the first module is expected to be offered in Fall of this year, and the remaining three courses will be offered during the following winter and spring.

The first module will be an introductory course offered at the University of Maryland, College Park involving Park Service employees from across the region and eventually from across the nation.  The second module will consist of an interactive, online program that was developed by the Park Service; Center faculty will monitor program participation.

The third module will consist of a week-long study tour of local, state, and national parks in the greater National Capital Region to gain first-hand knowledge of different applications of archaeological investigations and public interpretation.  The fourth and final module will require the program participants to complete a pilot project in archaeological interpretation, based on examples at the National Park where each individual is employed.

Grant Award
The Center is developing this program of study in cooperation with the University of Maryland’s Office of Continuing Education.  The Center recently received a grant award to help develop the program, as part of a program with the Office of Continuing Education to develop and implement the course of study.  Program participants will also include employees from local, regional, and state parks and historic sites.

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New Philadelphia, Illinois

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Beginning in the summer of 2002, Paul A. Shackel, Director of the Center for Heritage Resource Studies, began a long-term project to locate, document, and study the growth and eventual demise of a town once known as New Philadelphia, Illinois.

The story of New Philadelphia is compelling and nationally significant:  it is the earliest known incorporated town by an African American in the antebellum United States.

The story of New Philadelphia begins with Frank McWorter, an African American who hired out his own time and established his own saltpeter mining operations while enslaved in Kentucky.  With the money he earned he purchased his freedom, and in 1836 McWorter acquired lands in a sparsely populated area known as Pike Country, Illinois, situated in the rolling hill region of the Illinois and Mississippi River Valleys.  He incorporated a town and subdivided it and sold lots.  McWorter used the revenue from these sales to purchase the rest of his family out of bondage.

Both whites and blacks purchased property in New Philadelphia and the town existed as an integrated community well into the twentieth century. New Philadelphia stood 15 miles from the Mississippi River where the slave trade prospered and the McWorters and other black members of the community were always under the threat of being kidnapped and sold “down river.”  McWorter’s activities as town founder, proprietor, promoter, and developer foreshadowed the direction that other African Americans would take on the nation’s frontiers after the American Civil War.

After the Illinois frontier closed, racism set limits to New Philadelphia expansion.  County planners rerouted a major road away from New Philadelphia, and whites lobbied to have the railroad placed adjacent to another community.  By the 1880s the town was unincorporated, and by the early twentieth century only a few houses survived.  Today, all signs of the town have been removed from the landscape and the fields are planted in prairie grass and corn.

New Research at New Philadelphia

Shackel is working closely with Vibert White, Chair of the African-American Studies Program at the University of Illinois - Springfield (UI-S), and Director of the New Philadelphia Project to relocate and study the lost town.  During two long weekends in October and November Shackel led an archaeology survey team with two UM graduates, Joy Beasley and Tom Gwaltney (HistArc), and volunteers from the Illinois State Museum, Illinois College, Hannibal-LaGrange College, UI-S, and the New Philadelphia Association to locate New Philadelphia.

Without any visible signed of preexisting landscape features the research team used historic and topographic maps and aerial photographs to determine the general location of the town.  Local farmers plowed the fields and the archaeological survey consisted of a systematic walkover of original 42-acre town

The archaeology team located pieces of ceramic, window glass and nails in discrete concentrations that indicate the location and remains of domestic houses and commercial enterprises.  All of the archaeologically documented sites appear to cluster around the town’s known commercial district.

The goal of this interdisciplinary project is to make the story of New Philadelphia a part of the national public memory.

The current caretakers of the property, the New Philadelphia Association, also see the importance of preserving and studying the property.  This group, along with Shackel and White believe the story of New Philadelphia is unique because it is about the personal struggle of an African American to exist in a racist society while incorporating and settling in an integrated town on the western frontier.  They hope that one day the story of New Philadelphia will become part of the national story by designating it a state or a national park.

Vibert White Named New Center Affiliate

Vibert White is director of the African American Studies Program and Associate Professor in the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Center for Governmental Affairs at the University of Illinois at Springfield.  In Fall 2002, Dr. White accepted an invitation from the Center to become a new Center Affiliate.

Dr. Shackel and Dr. White are working closely together to study New Philadelphia, Illinois—the earliest town incorporated by an African American in the United States.

The Center is pleased to have Dr. White as an Affiliate, and we look forward to working with him on New Philadelphia and other endeavors.

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Archaeology in Annapolis

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This year, Dr. Mark Leone celebrated the 20th anniversary of the Archaeology in Annapolis program he initiated in 1981.  In addition to the ongoing excavations in and around Historic Annapolis, most recently the 2002 summer field school in urban archaeology, public outreach efforts included the creation of two streaming videos that are now available on the internet. In addition, the summer’s research activities included a LIDAR survey of two historic landscapes.

Streaming Videos on African American Archaeology
Ms. Maisha Washington, of the Bannekar-Douglass Museum, the State of Maryland’s Center for Afro-American History and Culture, teaches African American school children about archaeology through mock excavations.  Her archaeology course includes instruction in stratigraphic excavation, recording, and artifact identification and reconstruction.  The first such teaching experience for African American children in Annapolis, the project was sponsored by the Maryland Historic Trust.

The second video is devoted to the archaeology of religious traditions from West and West Central Africa as found in Annapolis.  Such materials, which are connected to Hoodoo, have been found during excavations in three areas within the Historic District of Annapolis.  The streaming video constitutes an accurate, online description of the majority of the materials that were actually excavated.

LIDAR Survey

The Department of Anthropology and the Department of Geography combined their talents and resources to conduct a LIDAR Survey of both William Paca’s Wye Island Plantation on Maryland’s Eastern Shore and of Tulip Hill just south of Annapolis.  Both of these large, intact 18th-century landscapes were mapped from the air through expertise available through the Department of Geography and were interpreted by Jim Harmon and Mark Leone of the Department of Anthropology.

LIDAR (which stands for Light Detection and Ranging) offers otherwise unavailable precision for topographic mapping and the discovery of features not visible on foot or from aerial photography.

Streaming Videos Online

Two streaming videos are now accessible through the website of the Smithsonian Institution’s Anacostia Museum and Center for African American History & Culture under their Online Academy series.

www.anacostia.si.edu

Teaching Archaeology to African American Children:
Go to the Online Academy, then click on “Learn More.”

Hoodoo Tradition in Annapolis:
Go to the Online Academy, then click on “Scholars” then “Mark P. Leone.”

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Monocacy National Battlefield

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The Center for Heritage Resource Studies is involved with excavations at Monocacy National Battlefield in Frederick, Maryland.  In 2001, archaeologists from the Department of Anthropology at the University of Maryland--College Park, under the direction of Joy Beasley (MAA 2001), began an archaeological study of the L'Hermitage, also known as the Best Farm, a 274-acre farmstead located at Monocacy National Battlefield.

Monocacy National Battlefield and the Best Farm

The site of a Civil War battle on July 8-9, 1864, Monocacy National Battlefield was created by congressional legislation in 1934.  However, much of the property remained in private ownership until the 1980s.  Thus, park lands were not opened to the public until 1991.  The Best Farm was among additional properties acquired by the Park Service in 1993.

The Best Farm is a multi-component cultural landscape that encompasses nearly the full range of human occupation in Maryland.  The Monocacy River forms the southern and eastern boundaries property, signifying high potential for for prehistoric sites, which often were located near major water sources.  In the first decades of the 18th century, European settlers traded with the local Native American population. In the mid-18th century, the town of Frederick was laid out and surrounding areas were divided into farmsteads.

During the Civil War, several important transportation routes through the Monocacy area (Georgetown Pike, major railroads, etc.) allowed significant troop movements through the region.

The Battle of Monocacy in 1864, led by Confederate General Jubal Early, was counted as a Confederate victory, but the battle helped prevent Early from making a successful assault on Washington, D.C.  John Best, the tenant on the farm at the time of the battle, continued his agricultural pursuits following the battle.

Project archaeologists are utilizing a number of different methodological and interpretive techniques, including GIS (Geographic Information System), in the investigations and have developed a successful volunteer and public outreach program.  Test excavations thus far have produced artifacts ranging from the prehistoric through the historic period.

Cooperative Agreement

This project is being conducted under a cooperative agreement between the Center and the Regional Archeology Program of the National Park Service, National Capital Region (Dr. Stephen Potter, Regional Archeologist).  The results of this study will assist the National Park Service in planning, development, and interpretation at the Best Farm.

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Anthropology on the Maryland's Eastern Shore

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This article was prepared by Amanda Ritchie and Michael Paolisso (UM Department of Anthropology) and published in the Maryland Watermen’s Gazette, September 2002:

"So, why do you know so much about crabs?"  One of us was recently asked by a new acquaintance while dining on soft crabs and talking about the blue crab life cycle at a restaurant in Baltimore.

"It's a long story, but the short version is that I'm an anthropologist from the University of Maryland and we work a lot with watermen on Maryland's lower eastern shore of the Chesapeake Bay."

She looked puzzled, and then asked, "But I thought anthropologists dig up artifacts in exotic places like Egypt?  What does anthropology have to do with watermen?" 

"That's part of anthropology.  What you're describing is archaeology, which is one of four subfields in anthropology.  I'm a cultural anthropologist who specializes in environmental issues."

Still confused, she said, "I thought anthropologists studied people, so why would you study environmental issues?  What's the connection?"  

"I do work with people – I talk with people like watermen, environmentalists, scientists.  My work on the Bay is to better understand different peoples' knowledge of the environment and pollution."

"But what's the point of understanding what watermen know about the environment?" she asked.

"Well, we think a better understanding of different groups' environmental knowledge and values can lead to resource management that is better for people and the environment.  And in response to your comment about working in exotic places, some might consider the Chesapeake Bay pretty exotic!"

In the summer of 1998, our work on the Bay began as a study of the social and cultural dimensions of Pfiesteria piscicida, which captured significant media and scientific attention in the summer of 1997.  We initiated the project because we felt that studying the cultural knowledge and values underlying peoples' responses to Pfiesteria was key to understanding the widespread "hysteria over Pfiesteria."  We also believed that such a study could help improve dialogue on scientific and policy issues among the Bay's environmental stakeholder groups.  Eventually, our work broadened to examine different groups' knowledge and values regarding the environment and pollution of Maryland's Chesapeake Bay.  Our work has involved watermen, natural resource managers, policymakers, farmers, non-governmental conservationists, and scientists who live, work and/or conduct research in the Maryland portion of the Chesapeake Bay watershed.  To date, most of our fieldwork has been conducted on Maryland's Lower Eastern Shore.

As anthropologists, there are some key concepts and techniques that we use to do our work.  Two very important and related concepts are cultural relativism and holism.  Anthropologists believe that different cultures and lifestyles can only be understood in relation to their own respective values and behaviors.  Therefore, the values and behaviors of one group cannot be judged according to those of another group – this is cultural relativism.   Anthropologists also look at people and culture holistically, meaning we view human behavior within the big picture and examine how parts of a culture are connected.

Here's an example of how these concepts are applied to our work on the Chesapeake Bay.  In order to better understand people's knowledge of the environment and pollution, we need to consider questions like: what knowledge and values do different groups have regarding the environment and pollution?  How is that knowledge shaped by their involvement in social institutions like universities, churches,environmental organizations?  What kinds of traditions and practices are influenced by and influence their knowledge and behaviors?  We look at the answers to these questions for each group and how they compare without judging whether a group is "better" or "worse," "right" or "wrong" – the goal is to better understand each culture's values, practices and knowledge by their own standards, and not judge them based on our own or any other culture's standards.  Of course, this is usually easier said than done!

Anthropologists use certain techniques to answer questions.  Fieldwork is the core technique of anthropology.  It can take many forms, but fieldwork generally involves the anthropologist observing and interacting with people where they live and work on a regular basis for an extended period of time.  For us, fieldwork involves helping a waterman cull crabs on his work boat, attending public hearings, interviewing environmentalists, conducting surveys, visiting with farmers and their families in their homes.  It can take a lot of time and effort to understand aspects of another culture from an insider's perspective.  But the benefits of doing fieldwork, both professional and personal, make it all worthwhile.

The newest phase of our work on the Bay is a study of women's roles in the peeler and soft crab industry (discussed in detail in this month's Gazette), and a project to conduct collaborative learning workshops involving Maryland watermen, natural resource managers and scientists this Fall and Winter.

We are conducting these workshops in response to the current controversy over the ecological and economic status of the blue crab fishery.

Yield and population indicators have led marine scientists and natural resource managers to believe that the blue crab population is at dangerously low levels and that reductions in commercial harvesting is key to protecting the blue crab.

Watermen agree that the blue crab fishery is under pressure and see a role for science and regulations in helping to sustain the fishery and their livelihoods, but they question the scientific knowledge and are critical of the governmental regulations.  Our goal is to act as a neutral third party and use the workshops as catalysts for mutual learning and constructive dialogue – that goes deeper than common discussions about specific issues, and exposes new insights about underlying issues – to improve relations between stakeholders.

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City Museum of Washington, DC

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The Center for Heritage Resource Studies is assisting with the development of an archaeology exhibit and programming for the new City Museum of Washington, DC, scheduled to open in May 2003.  The Historical Society of Washington, DC is working to convert the former Carnegie Library at Mount Vernon Square (across from the new DC Convention Center) into the new City Museum.  The exhibit is being developed by the Historical Society in cooperation with the DC Preservation Office.

New DC City Museum

The new City Museum of Washington, DC will focus on “residential” Washington, as opposed to the federal institutions, monuments, and museums that most people visit when they tour the nation’s capital.  The new DC City Museum will not attempt to draw visitors just to the Carnegie Library at Mount Vernon Square, but instead will entice people to venture out into all the neighborhoods of the city—making DC itself the ultimate exhibit at the new DC City Museum.

The archaeology exhibit and laboratory will occupy a portion of the ground floor directly under (appropriately) the main galleries on the first floor.  A glass wall will provide a space for text and artifact displays, with “stratigraphy” forming the organizing theme of the exhibit. The display will be designed so that visitors can see through the exhibit into the laboratory, where interpretive information on the scientific processes involved in archaeological excavation and research.  At certain times, the laboratory will be staffed and available for interactive programs. During ongoing excavations in the city, the laboratory will serve as a working facility for processing and analyzing artifacts, within view of the visiting public.

The Center is proud to be of assistance to the Historical Society in their efforts to develop this exciting new venue for exploring Washington DC’s past.

Visit the Historical Society’s website at www.hswdc.org for updated information on the progress of the museum.

Grant Award

The Center is developing a cooperative agreement with the Historical Society of Washington, DC to work together on the museum exhibit and other related projects.  A grant award from the DC Preservation Office provides funding for the first task under this agreement—developing a computerized catalog of archaeological reports.

Future awards are expected to expand that database to include the archaeological collections as well.  The Center is pleased to be working with both the Historical Society and the DC Preservation Office in this exciting area of Washington’s past.

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Belgian Delegation Visit

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The Department of Anthropology and the Center for Heritage Resource Studies recently hosted a delegation from Belgium to celebrate both the 59th anniversary of the Historic Annapolis Foundation and the second anniversary of the University of Maryland’s partnership with the Ename Center for Public Archaeology and Heritage Presentation in East Flanders, Belgium.

The Belgium Delegation included:

· Governor Herman Balthazar (East Flanders)

· Deputy Jean-Pierre Van Der Meiren (East Flanders)

· Werner Desimpelaere (Groep Planning, Bruges)

· Dirk Callebaut (Ename Center)

· Neil Silberman (Ename Center)

Belgian Delegation Visit

During the week of November 11-18, 2002, the delegation participated in numerous meetings and activities at the University of Maryland's flagship campus in College Park, as well as in Annapolis, Maryland and Washington, DC.  The highlights of the week's activities were:

§         Meetings at the University of Maryland

§         Lecture by Werner Disempalaere at the Belgian Ambassador’s Residence

§         National Park Service Workshop on the Ename Charter

§         Historical Annapolis Foundation Preservation Symposium

§         Congressional Meetings

§         Visits to historic and cultural sites in Washington, DC

A summary of the week's activities and programs is presented below.

Meetings at the University of Maryland

The Belgian delegation met with students, faculty, and administrative deans at the University of Maryland's flagship campus on Tuesday, November 12.

Center for Heritage Resource Studies

The Center for Heritage Resource Studies hosted a meeting for the Belgian delegation with UM faculty and students who participated in the 2002 Belgium Summer Study Program.  The meeting was held in the Library of the Academy of Leadership on the College Park campus.  Center Director Paul Shackel and Center faculty Michael Paolisso gave presentations on the wide variety of heritage research projects and training programs underway and Sandra Scham grant proposals in progress that will help strengthen the partnership between UM and the Ename Center and government of East Flanders.  In addition, the student representatives talked about the experiences they gained from participating in the summer study program.

Luncheon

At noon, the College of Behavioral and Social Sciences hosted at luncheon for the Belgian delegation at Adele’s Restaurant in the Stamp Student Union.  In attendance to honor the delegation were Dr. Ed Montgomery (Senior Associate Dean), Suheil Bushrui (Baha’i Chair of World Peace), Rick Weaver (UM Study Abroad Program), Kristin Owens (UM Academic Consulting Services and Continuing Education) as well as Department and Center faculty and students.

Meeting with Dean Irwin Goldstein

Following the luncheon, the Belgian delegation met with Dean Irwin Goldstein, College of Behavioral and Social Sciences, where they had the opportunity to learn of the University's commitment to heritage, heritage research, and interpretation within the University's academic programs.

Lecture by Werner Disempelaere

The evening of November 12, Werner Desimpelaere, a renowned architect with Groep Planning in Belgium, presented a lecture at the Belgian Ambassador’s Residence in Washington, DC as part of the Patterson Lecture Series of the Graduate Program in Historic Preservation.

NPS Workshop on the Ename Charter

The National Park Service's Chief Archaeologist (NPS Archeology & Ethnography Program) hosted a symposium to discuss the draft Ename Charter.

The Ename Charter is intended to provide "international standards and guidelines for authenticity, intellectual integrity and sustainable development in the public preservation of archaeological and historical sites and landscapes."  One of the main purposes of the workshop was to introduce the Charter to a U.S. audience.

In addition to the Belgian delegation, the NPS workshop participants were representatives of numerous NPS programs and departments, including:

§         Frank McManamon and Barbara Little (Archeology & Ethnography Program)

§         John Robbins (Assistant Director, Cultural Resources)

§         Dwight Pithcaithly (Chief Historian) and Laura Feller (History Program)

§         Corky Mayo (Chief, Interpretation & Education) and Rose Fennel (Interpretation & Education Program)

§         Bill Brown (Harper's Ferry Center), and

§         Brenda Barrett (Historic and Heritage Landscapes and Historical Areas)

Representatives of other organizations included:

§         Tom McCulloch (Advisory Council on Historic Preservation)

§         Robin Burgess (Bureau of Land Management)

§         Mike Kaczor (U.S. Forest Service)

§         Gustavo Araoz (U.S. International Council on Monuments and Sites)

§         Ellen Herscher (Archaeological Institute of America)

§         Julie King (Society for Historical Archaeology)

§         Donald Craib (Archaeological Conservancy)

§         Pam Cressey (Alexandria Archaeology)

§         Mary Kwas (Arkansas Archaeological Survey)

§         Rick Pettigrew (Archaeology Channel), and

§          University of Maryland representatives Paul Shackel (Director, Center for Heritage Resource Studies), Sandra Scham (CHRS), and Randy Mason (Historic Preservation Program).

The Ename Center, which drafted the charter, intends on submitting it to ICOMOS to begin the formal review and approval process.

Historic Annapolis Foundation Preservation Symposium

On Thursday, November 13, the Belgian delegation traveled to Annapolis, Maryland and attended the Historic Annapolis Foundation’s Historic Preservation Symposium, reception, and dinner.

Morning Speakers

Brian Alexander (President, Historic Annapolis Foundation), Ellen Moyer (Mayor of Annapolis), and Governor Balthazar presented introductory and welcoming remarks.  Richard Moe (President, National Trust for Historic Preservation) discussed current trends and directions in historic preservation, and Dirk Callebaut and Jean-Pierre Van Der Meiren discussed preservation and heritage in Belgium and East-Flanders.

Afternoon Speakers

Following lunch, Werner Desimpealere talked about Bruges as (the “City as  Mirror of Mankind and Humanity”) and Orlando Ridout (Maryland Historical Trust) discussed the preservation movement in Annapolis.  The symposium concluded with a panel discussion on the "preservation toolbox."  Participants included Randy Mason (Director, Historic Preservation at the University of Maryland), Tyler Gearhart (Executive Director, Preservation Maryland), and Mr. Callebaut, Mr. Silberman, and the Hon. Van Der Meiren.

Wednesday evening, prior to attending the symposium, the Belgian delegation attended a dinner at Carroll's Creek in Eastport, overlooking Annapolis' historic district and waterfront..  Lunch during the symposium was provided by the Historic Annapolis Foundation at the historic James Brice House on East Street in Annapolis.  After a visit to Capitol Hill in Washington (see below), the Belgian delegation returned to Annapolis Thursday evening for a dinner with Annapolis Mayor Ellen Moyer and other symposium participants at the restored home of William Paca, a signer of the Declaration of Independence.

Congressional Meetings

The Belgian delegation had the opportunity to meet with members of the U.S. Congress during their stay in the Washington area.  Thursday afternoon, the delegation met with Maryland's U.S. Senator Paul S. Sarbanes at his offices on Capitol Hill.

Friday morning, the delegation returned to Capitol Hill to meet with Maryland's Fifth District Congressman Steny Hoyer.  Following the meeting with Rep. Hoyer, the Belgian delegation received a private tour of the U.S. Capitol building and the Senate chambers.

Visits to Historic and Cultural Sites in Washington, DC

The Belgian delegation returned to Washington, DC and spent the weekend accompanied by Dr. Mark Leone visiting a number of cultural sites in the National Capital Region.  The delegation received a tour of Dumbarton Oaks by Curator Jeffrey Quilter, the National Cathedral, The Phillips Collection, the U.S. Holocaust Museum, and George Washington’s Mount Vernon, where the delegation received a private behind-the-scenes tour that included a climb up into the cupola of the historic home.

On Sunday, Dr. Leone hosted a farewell brunch for the Belgian delegation at the Cosmos Club in Washington, DC.  Also in attendance were Stewart Edelstein (former Senior Associate Dean, BSOS and currently Executive Director of the Universities of Shady Grove, Maryland), Donald Jones (Assistant Director, Center for Heritage Resource Studies), and Nan Wells (Director, Princeton University’s Office of Government Affairs).  Following the brunch, the Belgian delegation returned to their hotel to prepare for the return flight to Belgium later that afternoon.

Belgian Partnership

The faculty and staff of the University of Maryland’s Department of Anthropology and Center for Heritage Resource Studies were pleased to have had the opportunity to meet once again with our Belgian colleagues and help strengthen our cultural heritage exchange partnership.

We look forward to working with them again during the 2003 Belgium Summer Study Program in Archaeology and Heritage in Flanders, Belgium and other endeavors.

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Xiling, China — Site of the Western Qing Tombs

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In June 2002, Donald Jones, Assistant Director of the Center for Heritage Resource Studies, accompanied a University of Maryland delegation to China to visit the Western Qing Tombs, a World Heritage Site, and to meet with various representatives from different levels of the Chinese government concerning the preservation challenges at the site.

The Save Xiling Foundation was established in 2002 to raise funds to assist the Chinese government with the preservation and restoration of Xiling, site of the Western Qing Tombs.  To this end, the Foundation is developing several programs for research and education, public interpretation, and direct-appeal fundraising.  The Center for Heritage Resource Studies is working as a consultant with the Foundation to assist with these efforts.
Western Qing Tombs

The Western Qing Tombs are a complex comprising some 14 tombs of the last Imperial Dynasty in China (1644-1911).  The tombs contain the remains of emperors, empresses, princes and princesses, an emperor’s brother, and imperial concubines.  Unlike previous dynasties, the Qing dynasty has two separate tomb complexes—the Eastern and Western Tombs.

Tomb Layout and Design

Tailing, the tomb of Yongzheng, has been subject to extensive preservation and restoration efforts.  The tomb complex consists of a central paved walk (the Sacred Way) that leads across a series of marble arched bridges (see photo above), through elaborate gates, past series of pavilions housing memorial stela, past other ancillary ceremonial buildings, including a hall for changing clothes and an “oven” for burning offerings of silk.

The Sacred Way then leads to a large and grand paved plaza/courtyard with a large complex of ceremonial buildings through which one reaches a smaller courtyard, the tomb pavilion, then the tomb itself (which is an earthen mound).  The tomb also contains an underground palace that is not accessible to the public (and apparently never has been entered after it was initially sealed).

Other tombs follow the same general layout and composition, though smaller in size and with fewer buildings and other ornamental structures.  The tombs of the concubines, princes, and princesses contain multiple (a wall-enclosed area in which round, stone-walled and earth-filled tombs are located).  One of the concubine tombs contains 14 round tombs.

Landscape and Environmental Setting

In addition to the buildings and monuments, various landscape features figure prominently into the tomb’s designs.  The bridges cross a series of “rivers” (mostly man-made or altered drainages).  Much of the area lining the Sacred Way is (or was) tree-covered, and the entire setting and orientation of the tomb was selected to be in harmony with the surrounding mountains.

Preservation and Restoration

The buildings are constructed entirely of wood (with mortise and tenon joints) and include coffered ceilings and paneled walls that are (or were) elaborately painted.  The wood structures sit on elaborately carved stone foundations and are topped with elaborately decorated glazed tiles and roof-ridge ornamentation.  The government agencies responsible for the site have made tremendous strides in renovating and restoring many of the architectural features and monuments at the Xiling, but much work remains to be done. Since 2000, Xiling has been listed as a World Heritage Site, along with the Eastern Qing Tombs and one from the earlier Ming Dynasty.  It is hoped that this important designation will help bring needed attention, recognition, financial support, and tourism to Xiling.

Tourism

The Department of Cultural Heritage estimates the site receives 200,000 visitors per year, most of whom come from within China and many of them, including school groups, from the local region.  The government is seeking to increase tourism, particularly to include Western visitors. In the mountains nearby, a number of new and relatively posh hotels (all state owned) line the hills surrounding a man-made, but picturesque, lake.  Small beach/swimming areas line the reservoir below each of the hotels.

Administration of the Western Qing Tombs

The agencies with management authority over the Western Qing Tombs are:

§         State Administration of Cultural Heritage (Beijing)

§         Hebei Provincial Cultural Relics Bureau (Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province)

§         Baoding Municipal Cultural Relics & Tourism Bureau

The Center is grateful to the following people who met with us during the trip.

§         Wang Kunshan (Mayor, Baoding Municipality)

§         Wang Sheng Li (Vice County Chief, Yixian County)

§         Mr. Wanghui (Senior Engineer, Conservation Project Supervisor, Hebei Administration of Cultural Heritage)

§         Governor Niu Waosheng (Governor of Hebei Province)

Plans for a Cultural Exchange Program

The Center currently is developing a lecture exchange program with Hebei University and Nanjing University.  In addition, the Center is planning a Summer Study Course centered around Xiling. The Xiling course will be modeled after our successful Summer Study program in Belgium.

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World Wide Web Site

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The Center has expanded its presence on the World Wide Web.  Visit our home page, with links to our various programs and initiatives, at

www.heritage.umd.edu

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